Surya Namaskar, often referred to as Sun Salutation is a revered yoga practice that has gained immense popularity worldwide for its physical, mental, and spiritual benefits. This graceful sequence of asanas (yoga postures) is not just a physical exercise routine but a spiritual ritual that pays homage to the sun, the ultimate source of energy and life on Earth.

While Surya Namaskar may seem like a contemporary fitness trend, its roots run deep into the rich tapestry of ancient Indian traditions and philosophies. In this blog, we will embark on a journey through time to explore the fascinating and ancient origins of Surya Namaskar.

The Concept of Sun Worship in Ancient India

Surya Namaskar - worshipping god surya

We must examine the historical and cultural background of ancient India if we want to comprehend the roots of Surya Namaskar. The ancient Indian texts known as the Vedas are where sun worship, or the veneration of the sun as a deity originates. Over 3,000 years ago, hymns to Surya, the sun deity, were included in the Rigveda, one of the earliest writings ever written.

The sun is referred to as the source of life, energy, and light in these hymns. The sun was revered as a representation of cosmic power and divinity by the ancient sages who understood its significance in maintaining life on Earth. Eventually, several rituals, such as Surya Namaskar, came to represent this devotion to the sun.

Yoga and Its Evolution

Yoga has been practiced for thousands of years in India as a complete approach to improving one’s physical, mental, and spiritual health. Since yoga’s history is obscured by antiquity, it is difficult to determine when it first emerged. But yoga has developed over time as a philosophy and a way of life, taking cues from many traditions, including the Vedic ones.

The Upanishads, a group of philosophical writings from circa 800 BCE, depict the earliest yogic practices as being centered on meditation and breath control. Yoga evolved throughout the years into several schools and systems, each with its own method for realizing oneness with the divine and self-realization. In relation to our investigation of Surya Namaskar, Hatha Yoga, the branch of yoga that emphasizes physical postures and breathing techniques, is especially pertinent.

The Integration of Sun Worship into Yoga

One important component of the Surya Namaskar’s roots is the blending of sun worship with yoga. Early yogis, who were greatly inspired by Vedic traditions, understood that the sun represented life energy and started adding sun salutations into their daily routines. These early Surya Namaskar variations were probably less complicated and organized than the standard sequence we are acquainted with today.

Numerous publications and manuals that described diverse yogic practices arose as yoga continued to develop, particularly throughout the medieval era. Some of these classics, including the Hatha Yoga Pradipika and the Gheranda Samhita, described sun salutations as a way to cleanse the body and get it ready for more difficult yogic exercises. These scriptures also emphasized the sun’s spiritual meaning as a representation of divine consciousness.

The Role of Physical Postures

The incorporation of physical postures into Surya Namaskar most likely happened with the formation of Hatha Yoga, but early forms of sun salutations may have featured simple prostrations or gifts to the sun. The purpose of Hatha Yoga was to harmonize the body’s energies and get it ready for higher realms of awareness.

Physical postures were included because they helped practitioners stretch, strengthen, and purify their bodies, preparing them to serve as a vehicle for spiritual development. Poses like the Cobra (Bhujangasana) and Mountain (Parvatasana) are examples of asanas that were specially created to correspond with the symbolism of the sun.

Surya Namaskar as a Spiritual Practice

Surya namaskar - Yoga postures

Surya Namaskar maintained a solid spiritual and intellectual foundation throughout its history. It was viewed as a method to unite one’s inner forces, show appreciation to the sun for providing life-sustaining energy, and establish a connection with the divine.

Each Surya Namaskar stance has a related mantra or chant, in addition to the physical advantages. To strengthen the spiritual connection, these mantras are frequently uttered either silently or vocally during practice. The mantra for the first position, known as Pranamasana, for instance, is “Om Mitraya Namaha,” which translates to “I bow to the friend of all.”

The Surya Namaskar has a rich symbolic meaning. The inner self is depicted by the sun as the ultimate source of illumination and knowledge. Practitioners go from ignorance to knowledge, from mortality to immortality, and from darkness to light as they advance through the cycle.

Surya Namaskar Beyond India

Even though the Surya Namaskar has its origins in ancient India, it finally crossed borders to become a worldwide sensation. Indian yoga leaders like Swami Vivekananda and Paramahansa Yogananda introduced yoga, especially Surya Namaskar, to the West in the late 19th and early 20th centuries.

The physical fitness advantages of Surya Namaskar first propelled its acceptance in the West, but as time went on, many practitioners came to appreciate its spiritual qualities as well. Surya Namaskar is a critical component of many yoga practices today, and its advantages go beyond only physical wellness.

Modern Interpretations and Variations

Surya Namaskar changes as yoga does in the twenty-first century. Numerous yoga practitioners and teachers have created their own adaptations of the sequence that include aspects of originality and self-expression. While some varieties emphasize the contemplative and spiritual parts of the practice, others concentrate on specific areas of physical health, such as strength or flexibility.

The Surya Namaskar sequence has also been adapted to several yoga practices, such as Vinyasa, Ashtanga, and Power Yoga, each of which combines the sequence into its own special framework.


The Surya Namaskar’s historical roots show a strong link between yoga’s cultural, spiritual, and physical facets. A comprehensive system for well-being and self-realization has developed out of this practice over thousands of years from its origins as a method to honor the sun and harness its life-giving energy.

Surya Namaskar is still able to fascinate yoga practitioners all over the world. It acts as a link between the contemporary requirements of the present and the old knowledge of the past. Surya Namaskar is a monument to the continuing ability of yoga to alter and enhance the human experience, whether it is practiced for its physical advantages, its meditative characteristics, or its spiritual symbolism.